Identificar servicios activos escaneando puertos

Una vez que hemos aprendido a localizar los ordenadores activos conectados a la red utilizando los barridos de pings y tras saber la localización física de la máquina mediante los trazados de rutas ahora pasaremos a aprender como identificar los servicios activos en el host o lo que es lo mismo, los programas que se están ejecutando en la máquina y están a la escucha utilizando algún puerto determinado.
La exploración de puertos nos permitirá identificar los puertos que están a la escucha para así conocer que servicios están activos , esto visto desde el punto de vista de un atacante nos revelará los posibles objetivos para vulnerar el sistema y desde el punto de vista de un analista nos ayudará a detectar servicios extraños.
Existen muchas herramientas para la exploración de puertos pero  continuaré enseñando como utilizar ipscan (Windows) y nmap (Windows/Linux).

IPSCAN
El primer paso será introducir la IP de la máquina destino, si solo queremos escanear los puertos de un solo host introduciremos dos veces la misma IP. A continuación en la pestaña “options” marcaremos en la sección “Display” la opción “Only Open Port”, esto nos mostrará solo los puertos abiertos y si indicamos un rango de IP solo mostrará los equipos activos con puertos a la escucha.
Por último desde “Options” y “Select Port”  añadiremos el rango de puertos que queremos escanear. Con esto terminamos la configuración, ahora solo le daremos a Start y tendremos la lista de puertos activos de cada host.

NMAP

Con nmap el proceso es mas sencillo todavía, desde una consola escribimos nmap seguido de la IP que queremos escanear y nos mostrara una lista con los puertos y servicios activos como vemos en la imagen.
En próximas entradas enseñaré a encontrar vulnerabilidades en algunos de los servicios para ello antes aprenderemos a identificar el Sistema Operativo, los nombres y versiones de los programas que prestan los servicios en los host.

Acerca de Christian Romero

Técnico en explotación de sistemas informáticos, Webmaster y aficionado a la Seguridad Informática
Esta entrada fue publicada en Seguridad Informática y etiquetada , . Guarda el enlace permanente.

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